Volume 4 Issue 5

Issue 5 Articles

Prenatal Diagnosis of Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation with Color Doppler Ultrasonography – Report of Three Consecutive Cases and Review of the Literature

Case Report
Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM) is a rare, congenital condition consisting of pathological arteriovenous connections within the fetal brain which can prenatally lead to cardiomegaly and severe onset of congestive heart failure. Doppler ultrasound examination is sufficient to confirm the diagnosis and to determine the time of delivery and the prognosis. The aim of this paper is to discuss the pathophysiology and indicators of poor prognosis in the VGAM patients as well as to...

Malignant Transformation in A Case of Multiple Osteochondromas: Role of FDG PET/CT Imaging

Clinical Image
We present a 19-year-old man affected by osteochondromatosis since he aged 9. Multiple enchondromas showed asymmetric distribution of osseous and cartilage lesions with major deformities of pelvis and long bones and minor lesions in left scapula and few ribs. He went to our observation because of size increase of left pelvis and thigh deformities, pain and cortical destruction that gave us a suspicion of malignant transformation. For these reasons, the patient underwent 18-F-FDG PET/CT scan....

Large Colloid Drusen in Young Patient

Clinical Image
Drusen are yellow or white accumulations of extracellular material made up of lipids and proteins, that build up between basal blade of retinal pigment epithelium and collagen layer of Bruch’s membrane. They are the most common clinical manifestation of aging and usually occur in the population over 50 years old, however a special entity may occur earlier, especially Large Colloid Drusen [1,2]. Large Colloid Drusen most often develops in women with no family history of...

Bluish-Grey Discoloration of Gingiva and Lips Dueto Chronic Anti-Convulsant Use

Clinical Image
A 27-year-old female who was a known case of epilepsy presented to our emergency with one episode of generalised tonic-clonic seizure. She was being managed on phenytoin for 5 years and valproate had been added 2 years back from a private clinic. She had missed her doses for two days due to travel and presented with a breakthrough seizure. On examination, her lips and gums were having bluish-gray pigmentation as shown in figure 1A and...